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International technology firm ZipJet has just released its latest roundup of the world’s most and least stressful cities, and not one American city cracked the top 10 spots for “least stressful.” Instead it was Stuttgart, Germany — a city of roughly 625,000 people in the country’s southwest region — that won ZipJet’s No. 1 ranking for the least stressful global destination. And Luxembourg (no. 2); Hannover, Germany (no. 3); Bern, Switzerland (no. 4); and Munich, Germany (no. 5), rounded out the remaining five spots.

To compile its ratings, the company considered 17 factors that could contribute to anxiety or stress across 500 cities. These factors included unemployment, per capita debt, “perception of security” (safety), and levels of physical and mental health.

Source: ZipJet, “The 2017 Global Least & Most Stressful Cities Ranking”

Here’s the list of ZipJet’s top 25 least stressful cities in the world, ranked from least stressful at No. 1 and increasing from there.

1. Stuttgart, Germany
2. Luxembourg, Luxembourg
3. Hannover, Germany
4. Bern, Switzerland
5. Munich, Germany
6. Bordeaux, France
7. Edinburgh, United Kingdom
8. Sydney, Australia
9. Graz, Austria
10. Hamburg, Germany
11. Zurich, Switzerland
12. Seattle, United States
13. Wellington, New Zealand
14. Nice, France
15. Dresden, Germany
16. Auckland, New Zealand
17. Oslo, Norway
18. Helsinki, Finland
19. Abu Dhabi, UAE
20. Melbourne, Australia
21. Düsseldorf, Germany
22. Reykjavik, Iceland
23. Kuwait City, Kuwait
24. Montreal, Canada
25. Leipzig, Germany

As you’ll notice on the list, only one American city was included in the top 25 — Seattle, Washington, at No. 12. America doesn’t show up on the list again until Boston (no. 36), followed by Washington, D.C. (no. 58), and New York City (no. 84).

The world’s most stressful cities generally have fewer green spaces, worse public transit and mental health scores, as well as other issues like pollution. Many US cities in particular scored poorly in areas like population density, presence of green spaces, quality of public transportation, or security and mental health, which could explain their diminished standing as compared to many Western European cities.

The areas where Germany specifically seems to be doing well — and perhaps one of the reasons why its cities appear 11 times on the list, in relatively low-stress rankings — include green spaces, public transportation, and mental health (many of the areas where America suffers).

Concluding ZipJet’s list are the world’s top 5 most stressful cities: Cairo, Egypt (no. 146); Dakar, Senegal (no. 147); Lagos, Nigeria (no. 148); Kabul, Afghanistan (no. 149); and Baghdad, Iraq (no. 150). Each ranked especially poorly in areas like mental health and perception of security — which might come as little surprise, given that Egypt has experienced tumult in the wake of the Arab Spring revolutions and ensuing political crises, and countries like Afghanistan and Iraq continue to be rocked by extremist violence and warfare.

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